Nepal is divided into three geographical regions. They are Himalayan, Hilly and Terai regions. A brief data of them is given below.
This region comprises about 15% of the total land area in Nepal. The altitude of this region is above 5,000 m. The region encompasses eight of the 14 highest summits of the world crossing over an altitude of 8,000 m such as Mt. Everest (8848 m), Kanchenjunga (8586 m), Lhotse (8,516m), Makalu(8,463m.) , Cho Oyu ( 8,201m), Manaslu (8,163m), Dhaulagiri (8167 m), Annapurna (8091 m), with sparse vegetation.
The peoples in the Himalayan are called Tibeto-Mongoloid by races and Tibeto-Buddhist by religion. They speak Tibetan language and their own dialects. Their life is based on the Trans- Himalayan trade and many also trade across the border Nepal-Tibet border to sell their goods.
It was believed that the people called the Sherpas of the North Eastern region of Nepal were the migrants of the eastern Tibet.
Some of Nepal's most beautiful animals and plant-life are also abundant here. Although rare, the snow leopard and Danphe bird are much talked-about sights among visitors. The people in this region produce and sell cheese besides working as mountain guides and porters.
This region accounts for about 68% of the total land area in Nepal. The region lies between the Himalayan and Terai regions soaring up to 4,877 m. The valleys like Kathmandu and Pokhara lie in this region. Elevation ranges from 500 to 3,000m above sea level. During summer the temperature reaches an average of 32 degree Celsius. Winter is cold, and temperature sometimes goes below the freezing point. Areas in the eastern hills receive more rainfall because of the monsoon clouds, which come from the Bay of Bengal. The western and rain shodow regions do not receive rainfall so the mountain glaciers are the main sources of the rivers in the region. The hills and their forest are the abode of various species of birds, wild animals like spotted leopard, barking deer and Himalayan black bear. Over four hundred species of birds are found here. The hilly region is also popular for different kinds of flora and fauna comprising several medicinal herbs.
In the hilly region the peoples depend on agriculture and livestock. Newars are the main ethnic group of Kathmandu and are mostly associated in business. Magars, Gurungs, Rai and Limbus form the warrior class and are famous throughout the world as Brave Gurkhas
The low-land also called Terai region occupies about 17% of the total land area of the country. Its elevation ranges from 70 to 200 m with subtropical climate. It extends from the Nepal-India border in the south to the base of Sivalik Hills (Churia) in the north. In the sub-tropical forest areas of Terai are found, marshes and wildlife, which include the Royal Bengal tiger, one horned Rhino and the Gharial crocodile etc. About 48% of the country's population occupies this region. Flat farmlands and the region's flexible topography have given rise to many industries.
During the course of time people from mid-hills started migrating to this region as they found the land there rich enough for cultivation. Rapid migration to Terai is affecting the density of population of Nepal..