Nepal is a melting pot of many castes and ethnic groups of people. With the population of twenty-five million, all these diverse cast and ethnic groups of people live in different regions, following different costumes and speaking different dialects. However, their common language is Nepali.
Each region is represented by particular ethnic groups whose agriculture and lifestyles are adapted to suit the physical constraints of their environment. In the Himalayan region, the people are Monologian of Tibetan origin. They are known as bhote in Nepali. In the east of the midlands region, we find Kirati people known as Rai, Limbu ethnic groups. They speak Tibeto-Burman Language. In the Terai region, we find Tharus of Hindu origin, Muslim and many other ethnic groups of people.
Anthropologists divide the people of Nepal into about 90 ethnic groups or castes with their own culture and traditions. Each ethnic group is proud of their heritage. Many people use the name of their ethnic group, caste or clan as their surname. The caste system is based on occupational works such as Brahmins (Hindu Priests), Chhetris (farmers in the hills and soldiers), Newars (the original inhabitants of Kathmandu Valley), Thakalis, Gurungs, Rais, Limbus, Tamangs, Magars, Potters, butchers, blacksmiths, cobblers, goldsmiths, clothes washers, etc.